Gluten intolerance, also known as Celiac Disease, is an autoimmune disease in which the GI tract is the initial site of injury. Gluten refers to a group of proteins found in wheat, rye and barley. For those Celiac Disease suffers, the immune system treats gluten as a foreign body and inflames the villi (little finger-like projections in the GI tract) to protect the body from the perceived intruder.
Under normal circumstances, the villi are the main site for nutrient absorption. In their inflamed state, nutrient absorption is hindered leading to nutritional deficiencies and possible short- and long-term complications. Common nutrient deficiencies associated with gluten intolerance include low iron in the blood or anemia which may cause chronic fatigue. Calcium absorption can also be inhibited leading to bone loss or osteoporosis. Gluten intolerance has also been linked to other chronic autoimmune diseases such as Rheumatoid Arthritis and Type 1 Diabetes.
It seems that once your body begins fighting battles to protect itself from invaders like gluten, it sometimes kills off its own healthy cells. This is the case with Type 1 Diabetes where the beta-cells of the pancreas are destroyed thereby eliminating the body’s own insulin production. An autoimmune response may promote an increase in pro-inflammatory agents as a way to protect specific body parts from assailants while at the same time unintentionally causing pain and suffering in other areas such as the joints, as seen with Rheumatoid Arthritis.
Technically, you do not have a true gluten intolerance or Celiac Disease unless tested and confirmed by a physician. The tests include blood work for the antigliadin antibodies (IgA) as well as a biopsy of the GI tract. If you suspect that you are gluten intolerant and begin to eliminate sources of gluten, as I did, your tests will come back negative. You have to ingest the offender in order to stimulate the antibodies. For more on gluten intolerance and foods to avoid as well as foods to include, tune in next week. For now, at least pizza is back on the menu!
1 packet or 2 1/4 teaspoon active, dry yeast
3/4 cup warm water, not too hot to touch
1 teaspoon sugar
1 cup brown rice flour
3/4 cup tapioca flour
1/4 cup millet flour
2 teaspoons xanthan gum
3/4 teaspoon sea salt
2 eggs, room temperature
2 Tablespoons olive oil
2 Tablespoons ricotta cheese, room temperature
Allow ricotta and eggs to come to room temperature. Preheat oven to 200 degrees and place pizza stone or baking sheet in oven to warm. Place yeast and sugar in a small bowl and add 1/4 cup warm water. Mix to dissolve yeast and sugar and wait 5 minutes for yeast to activate. The water will appear milky and tiny bubbles will rise to indicate the yeast is active.In one mixing bowl, combine the flours, xanthan gum and salt. In another bowl, beat eggs and combine with oil and ricotta cheese. You can combine all ingredients by hand in a very large mixing bowl, or use a standing mixer or a food processor. Combine the flour with the yeast-water. Add the egg-ricotta mixture. Add more water very gradually while you either knead the dough by hand or with your mixer. Your goal is to get a shiny, pliable dough.
1 Tablespoon olive oil
1 onion, sliced
3 cloves garlic, minced
3 large tomatoes, diced, seeds removed
10 basil leaves, roughly chopped or torn
1/2 cup fresh mozzarella,sliced or shreddedSauté onion until fragrant and soft. Add garlic and tomatoes and simmer about five minutes. Stir in oregano and parsley to blend, about 2 minutes. Sprinkle with fresh ground pepper and sea salt. Pour sauce over pizza and gently top with mozzarella. Bake for 7 minutes at 400 degrees or just until cheese has melted. Remove from oven. Let rest for five minutes. Slice and enjoy! Barbecue Chicken Pizza
2 boneless chicken breast halves, cooked & cubed
2 cups barbecue sauce (see homemade barbeque sauce recipe)
1 teaspoon olive oil
1/2 red onion, thinly sliced
1/2 bunch fresh cilantro, chopped
4 ounces smoked mozzarella
Sauté red onion in olive oil until carmelized. Add chicken and barbeque sauce. Bring to a boil. Reduce heat to simmer until sauce thickens and clings to chicken. Pour chicken-barbeque sauce mixture on top of prebaked pizza crust. Sprinkle with cilantro and cheese and heat in a 400 degree oven for 5 minutes or until cheese has melted. Remove from oven. Let rest for five minutes. Slice and enjoy!